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Solzjenitsyn er død

 
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InnleggSkrevet: 04 08 08 07:40    Tittel: Solzjenitsyn er død Svar med Sitat

Forfatteren Aleksandr Solzjenitsyn åpnet verdens øyne for hvilke redsler som fant sted i de sovjetiske Gulag-leirene. Søndag kveld døde han, 89 år gammel.

Solzjenitsyn ble en av de mest kjente systemkritikerne under Sovjet-veldet og overlevde både forfølgelse og flere år i Stalins fangeleirer.

Forfatteren brukte sine egne erfaringer i de kjente verkene «En dag i Ivan Denisovitsj' liv», «I første krets» og «Gulag-arkipelaget» for å beskrive den sovjetiske politistaten og det grusomme arbeids- og straffeleirsystemet.

Solzjenitsyn ble sendt i eksil av sovjetiske myndigheter i 1974, men var i over 20 år selve symbolet for på den intellektuelle motstandskampen mot kommunistregimet i Moskva.
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Solzjenitsyn er spesielt kjent for «Gulag-arkipelaget», som ble skrevet i all hemmelighet i Sovjet og spredt via opposisjons- og undergrunnsnettverk i unionen. Den ble publisert i Vesten i tre bind mellom 1973 og 1978.

Han bodde flere år i Sveits og USA før han etter Sovjetunionens fall kunne flytte tilbake til Russland i 1994 – denne gang som en nasjonalhelt


kilde: http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/uriks/article2572895.ece

Jeg husker jeg pløyde meg gjennom mesterverket "Gulag-arkipelet" en sommerferie mens jeg studerte og var arbeidsledig.
Ganske saftig lesning, men det som irriterer meg er at jeg klarte aldri å bli ferdig med det siste bindet Sad
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InnleggSkrevet: 04 08 08 09:32    Tittel: Re: Solzjenitsyn er død Svar med Sitat

BenNevis skrev:

Jeg husker jeg pløyde meg gjennom mesterverket "Gulag-arkipelet" en sommerferie mens jeg studerte og var arbeidsledig.
Ganske saftig lesning, men det som irriterer meg er at jeg klarte aldri å bli ferdig med det siste bindet Sad


Synes å huske fra norske anmeldere at boken var ganske ugjennomtrenglig fordi han brukte det russiske systemet med å "bøye" navn iht. kjønn, situasjon og slekt i en slik grad at de gikk helt i surr hvem historien dreide seg om flere steder. Var det noe du merket?
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InnleggSkrevet: 04 08 08 12:11    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Det der er helt normalt i russisk, men bøyningene oversettes ikke til andre språk- så det der merker man ikke noe til med en oversatt tekst.
Men prøv å les Tolstojs Krig og fred du - der har du persongallerier med dusinvis av navn Smile

Fant en bokomtale her:

http://www.bokavisen.no/pressemeldinger/2007/02/solzjenitsyns_gulagarkipelet_m.php
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 08 08 19:40    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Leseverdig nekrolog fra Ludwig von Mises Institute:

Sitat:



Farewell to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Daily Article by Yuri N. Maltsev | Posted on 8/6/2008

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, writer, Nobel Prize winner, and the most famous Soviet dissident died at the age of 89 on August 3, 2008 in his home near Moscow. He lived a long and hard life, but he died the way that he wanted to: "He wanted to die in the summer — and he died in the summer," his wife Natalya said. "He wanted to die at home — and he died at home. In general I should say that Aleksandr Isayevich lived a difficult but happy life."

His entire life was a victory over the most improbable. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was born on December 11, 1918 in Kislovodsk in Southern Russia, half a year after his father died in a hunting accident. He managed to get a Soviet university education despite the fact that his mother Taisiya came from one of the richest families of Southern Russia and his father Isaakiy was an officer in the tsar's army.

Aleksandr was raised by his mother in abject poverty as his earliest years coincided with war communism and its abolition of private property (making economic calculation impossible); what followed was mass starvation and destruction. His family was no exception — their property was confiscated and later destroyed by central planners.

Solzhenitsyn stated in his autobiographical series of novels The Red Wheel that his mother was fighting for survival and they had to keep his father's background in the old Imperial Army a secret. Taisiya was well educated and openly encouraged her son's literary and scientific interests, while also secretly raising him in the Christian faith. He studied physics and mathematics at Rostov University before becoming a Soviet army officer after Hitler invaded Russia in 1941.

He was commissioned as a Soviet artillery officer during the Second World War despite the fact that he had previously been rejected due to poor health. A successful artillery captain, he was arrested by the secret police in 1945 for disrespectful remarks about Stalin in a letter to a friend.

Despite his eight-year sentence for hard labor (which was nearly a death sentence in Stalin's dreadful Gulag system), he managed to stay near Moscow in the government research facility for imprisoned scientists. Eventually he was transferred to the special Ekibastuz camp in Kazakhstan. In the Tashkent medical ward a malignant tumor was removed from his stomach in 1954, and he survived the tumor and the surgery against all odds.

After release from the Gulag in 1956, Solzhenitsyn returned to Central Russia, worked as a math teacher and began to write his powerful prose. "During all the years until 1961, not only was I convinced that I should never see a single line of mine in print in my lifetime, but, also, I scarcely dared allow any of my close acquaintances to read anything I had written because I feared that this would become known," he said in his autobiography. "Finally, at the age of 42, this secret authorship began to wear me down."

He published his first works, two novellas: "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich", and "Matryona's House" in a literary journal Novyi Mir (New World) in 1962 with explicit approval by Nikita Khrushchev. These were the only publications of Solzhenitsyn in his own country until 1990.

In 1970, after publishing several works in the West, including the novel Cancer Ward — a fictional piece based on Solzhenitsyn's own treatment at the Tashkent cancer ward — he was awarded, while in exile, the Nobel Prize in literature. Solzhenitsyn didn't attend the ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden for fear that he would not be allowed to re-enter the USSR.

Three years later, his Gulag Archipelago was published in France. Immediately after this publication he was accused of treason, stripped of his citizenship, and deported to Germany. He wrote sarcastically: "For a country to have a great writer … is like having another government. That's why no régime has ever loved great writers, only minor ones."

He accepted an invitation to teach at Stanford University, and then moved to Cavendish, Vermont, where he lived with his family for years.

In 1990, his citizenship was restored by Gorbachev, and he returned to Russia in 1994 and actively participated in the reform process. He crossed the country that had already ceased to be the Soviet Union, from the East to the West, acquiring "a collection of cries and tears."

"It is history's sorrow," Solzhenitsyn wrote afterwards, "the grief of our era, which I carry about me like an anathema."

We will remember Solzhenitsyn as an unyielding champion of freedom who dedicated himself to revealing the horrors of socialism and exposing the ultimate evil of Lenin, Stalin, and their cohort of mass murderers. Once a prisoner of brutal labor camps himself, Solzhenitsyn chronicled the horrors of the Soviet Gulag system and emerged as a one of Russia's greatest writers. He became a moral and spiritual leader who exposed and condemned the nefarious nature of the socialist ideology that served as the basis for the monstrous communist slave camps established from Siberia to Ethiopia, Cuba to Vietnam, China, and Yugoslavia. He riveted socialists of all countries whose secret ghastly history he exposed.

"For us in Russia, communism is a dead dog, while, for many people in the West, it is still a living lion", wrote Solzhenitsyn while in his exile in the West.

In the West, he liked the Swiss model of local government and spoke highly of his experiences living in Vermont. Before leaving for Russia in 1994, Solzhenitsyn spoke to his neighbors in a Cavendish town meeting and thanked the town for its hospitality and for respecting his privacy. He thought of the town-meeting type of self-government as the most suitable for Russia. He did not, however, make a god of democracy; he admired great Russian reformer Pyotr Stolypin with his strong promarket and antisocialist stand as the prime minister of the Russian Empire (1906-1911).

Solzhenitsyn believed in the individual rather than the group, party, or state. He wrote in The Gulag Archipelago, "that the line separating good and evil passes not through states, nor between classes, nor between political parties either — but through all human hearts."

Solzhenitsyn had enough courage to equate socialism and Nazism as equally evil and morally reprehensible. He condemned both Nazi and Soviet atrocities during the Second World War and he accused his fellow countrymen of masterminding their own shipwreck.

According to Solzhenitsyn, 61,000,000 people were slaughtered in the USSR in the quest for equality. Under Stalin alone, 43,000,000 were murdered. Lenin and Khrushchev are responsible for the other 18,000,000. Most of these deaths (39,000,000) were due to forced labor in gulags and during deportations.

His writings earned him over 20 years of prison, exile, and world-wide renown, making him the most prominent dissident of the Soviet era and a symbol of intellectual resistance to communist rule. But he is also one of the most maligned and defamed writers of the 20th century. He has been the victim of character assassination and willful distortions from almost every quarter.

He published his final original work in June 2001 with "200 Years Together: 1775-1995," about the history of Jews in Russia. Solzhenitsyn spent his last years in failing health and seclusion at his rural home in Troitse-Lykovo near Moscow, editing his 30-volume collected works. He predicted that he would not be able to complete the work, which will "continue after my death."
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 08 08 20:33    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Grunnen til at han ble oppfattet som kontrovers både i øst og vest, var at han lot seg ikke så lett sette i bås. Som kristen ortodoks tradisjonalistisk tenker var han i stand til å kritisere både kommunistisk og liberalistisk ensretting, og således sette seg utover den vanlige høyre/venstre-båssettingen.

“Jeg er tilfreds med at min forfattergjerning vil fullføres under enhver omstendighet, og selv fra graven vil den være mer suksessfull og uutfordret enn mens jeg fortsatt er i live. Ingen kan løsrive seg fra sannhetens veier, og for dens skyld er jeg klar til å godta selv døden. Men kanskje noen lekser kan lære oss å ikke la livet stoppe skribentens penn?” - A. Solsjenitsyn
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 08 08 20:36    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Jeg likte spesielt dette sitatet (hentet fra Maltsevs nekrolog ovenfor), det bærer mye sannhet i seg:

Sitat:
"For a country to have a great writer … is like having another government. That's why no régime has ever loved great writers, only minor ones."

Pennen er ofte mektigere enn sverdet...
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 08 08 20:44    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Ja, han kompromisset ikke på sannheten, selv om det kunne skaffe han trøbbel. Han fikk motbør etter at han publiserte "200 år sammen", hvor jødenes medvirkning i den bolsjevikiske maktovertakelsen ble solid dokumentert.

Et kjapt utdrag fra innledningen her:

“Through half a century of work on the history of the Russian revolution I many times came into contact with the question of the Russian - Jewish interrelations. They wedged into events, into human psychology, where incandescent(hvitglødende) passions were provoced.

I did not stop hoping that I would be able to illuminate this hardened wedge on a large-scale and balanced fashion. But we oftenly meet one-sided reproaches; either of the Russian guilt for the Jews, even of the age-long depravity of the Russian people. But on the other hand: Who amongst the Russians wrote about these interrelations, thus most of the time passionate and emphazised, and lacking the will to take the other side of the story into account?”

http://lib.ru/PROZA/SOLZHENICYN/200let.txt

Vi hadde en tråd på gang på doc.no om den saken:

http://www.document.no/2008/08/_this_picture_was_taken.html
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 08 08 21:03    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Den kjøper jeg ikke. Jeg har lest mye rart, eksempelvis at Vatikanet stod bak Hitler. Det finnes historieskrivning hvor det eksempelvis hevdes at andre verdenskrig egentlig var en krig mellom sionisme og katolisisme. Jeg tar slike påstander med en stor klype salt. Det er også forskjell på å kategorisk hevde det man mener er sannheten og det som reelt sett er sannheten. Å snakke om "jødene" i denne og andre sammenhenger er noe søkt da vi stort sett finner alle folkeslag og grupper representert i større eller mindre grad overalt. Jeg mener et slikt perpektiv er forfeilet og på siden av hva man kan trekke inn som relevant - en avsporing rett og slett. At Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn var en stor forfatter er jeg derimot ikke i tvil om.
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 08 08 21:59    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Jeg tror ikke Solsjenitsyns intensjon var å fyre opp under antisemittisme eller konspirasjonsteorier. Det er en offentlig hemmelighet at mange av dem som satt i den juntaen som tok makten i Russland var jøder. Trotskij f.eks. var jøde. Men grunnen til at han falt unøde var nok andre enn at han var jøde. Det samme gjaldt de andre som ble forfulgt - de ble forfulgt fordi de var trotskister, ikke for at de var jøder. At påpekning av fakta kan brukes av dem som ønsker å fyre opp under antisemittisme, er en annen sak.
Personlig tror jeg ikke på konspirasjonsteoriene om noen "Jødisk verdensregjering". Min personlige synsing er at jødene var i flertall i visse sammenhenger, retten og sletten fordi jødene var glupest i visse sammenhenger:)
Eller for å si det på en annen måte:

Man blir ikke rikest i USA uten å være smartest i USA:)
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InnleggSkrevet: 12 08 08 23:34    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

En noe mer kritisk nekrolog fra ReasonOnline:

Sitat:

Solzhenitsyn's Tarnished Legacy

Understanding the Russian dissident's sad and paradoxical final years

Cathy Young | August 7, 2008

When I first heard of Alexander Solzhenitsyn during my childhood in the Soviet Union, he was the officially reviled author of forbidden books. To my anti-communist parents and their friends, he was a hero who had challenged the leviathan of the Soviet state and told the truth about its crimes. Today, nearly 20 years after the collapse of communism, Solzhenitsyn—who died Sunday, a few months short of his 90th birthday—is remembered with admiration around the world and in his own country. And yet his legacy as a public figure is far more complicated.

By the early 1980s, Solzhenitsyn, who was deported from the Soviet Union in 1974 and settled in the United States, was fighting not just the communist regime, but other dissidents who were too pro-Western, too liberal, too supportive of individualism and pluralism. Russia, Solzhenitsyn argued, had its own path, rooted in national identity, traditional faith, and community rather than individual rights and secular democracy.

A few years later, debates about competing visions for post-communist Russia were suddenly no longer academic. In 1990, Solzhenitsyn's essay, "How to Rebuild Russia," was published in the Soviet Union as a mass-circulation pamphlet. In 1994, he returned to his homeland to a hero's welcome. Sharply critical of Boris Yeltsin's policies, he turned down a state award in 1998, saying he could not accept it from "a government which has brought the country to its present state of ruin."

Last year, he accepted Russia's State Prize from the hands of Vladimir Putin.

It was startling to see Solzhenitsyn, the chronicler of the gulag, chatting with Putin, a career KGB officer. A month later, in an interview with the German magazine Spiegel, Solzhenitsyn explained that Putin "was not a KGB investigator, nor was he the head of a camp in the gulag," but rather an officer in foreign intelligence, an honorable career in many countries. Never mind that, whatever division he worked in, Putin served in the same institution that hounded dissidents and sent people to the gulag; or that, after his ascent to power, he moved to restore the KGB and its predecessors to a place of honor in Russian history and society.

In the same interview, Solzhenitsyn pointedly refused to criticize Putin's assertion that Russia should not dwell on the horrors of the Stalinist past; instead, he complained that both the West and the former Eastern-bloc Soviet satellites were using Stalin-era atrocities as a moral bludgeon against Russia.

Putin's Russia was hardly Solzhenitsyn's ideal; its rampant consumerism and kitschy pop culture far exceeded the Western materialism that he deplored. And yet Putin's authoritarian regime, with its emphasis on national unity, its ties to the Russian Orthodox Church, and its assertiveness in foreign affairs appealed strongly to the writer.

This was the sad paradox of Solzhenitsyn's final years. The man who once wrote to Soviet leaders demanding the abolition of censorship never protested the revival of censorship. The man who used his Nobel Prize to start a fund for political prisoners kept quiet about the new political prisoners of Putin's regime. The man who coined the slogan "To live not by the lie" had a cozy relationship with a government that rigged elections and filled the media with lies big and small. The man who had once asked the West for "more interference in our internal affairs" joined the chorus of anti-Western agitprop.

In his last article, in Izvestia in April, he castigated as anti-Russian the Ukrainian government's efforts to have the state-engineered famine of 1932-33 declared a genocide. He lamented, "Such savage incitement will be the easiest thing for the West to swallow: They have never even tried to understand our history, they'll eat up any fable, no matter how demented."

Solzhenitsyn's role in bringing down communist totalitarianism will never be forgotten. But in giving his de facto blessing to a resurgent authoritarianism that rolled back many of Russia's hard-won freedoms, when he had the moral authority to speak up and have an impact, he inevitably tarnished this role.

In his Nobel speech in 1974, Solzhenitsyn said that "one word of truth will outweigh the whole world." In the 20th century, Solzhenitsyn spoke this word when it mattered. In the 21st, he did not.
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