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Hva kommer ordet yankee av?

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Ble Medlem: 27 Feb 2008
Innlegg: 5071

InnleggSkrevet: 07 10 10 23:26    Tittel: Hva kommer ordet yankee av? Svar med Sitat

Den mest troverdige forklaringen av ordet yankee går ut på at riktig mange av nederlenderne som grunnla New York, het enten Jan eller Kees til fornavn. Engelskmennenes kallenavn eller kjælenavn på dem ble Jan Kees - som så senere ble til yankees.

Kilde: Alt om Historie & Vitenskap, nr. 3/2010

"An nescis, mi fili, quantilla sapientia mundus regatur?"
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Ble Medlem: 29 Apr 2008
Innlegg: 1746
Bosted: Nesten på sørlandet

InnleggSkrevet: 08 10 10 07:32    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Interessant! Har faktisk lurt på hva det kommer av - det er jo et meget hyppig brukt ord, både av amerikanerne selv samt av andre.

Her er litt andre forklaringer:

No one is positive of the origin but entymologists have two strong guesses. I copied the following from the site listed in my sources:
"This self-referential American term is of uncertain origin. There are two leading hypotheses with several other less-likely contenders.

The OED2's earliest usage cites are from the 1680s. They refer to a pirate (at least it is probably to one individual) named Yankee Duch (1683),Captain Yankey (1684), and Captain John Williams (Yankee) (1687). The next earliest reference is an estate inventory from 1725 listing a slave named Yankee.

The earliest recorded usage of the term for Americans in general is in a 1758 letter by General James Wolfe, the hero of the battle of Quebec, in which he uses it as a pejorative term.

The song Yankee Doodle dates from 1775 and was intended to be insulting. Following the battle of Concord, during which the retreating British played it on the route back to Boston, the Americans adopted the tune as their own and the term began to acquire a complimentary sense.

This, however, may not be earliest usage of Yankee in a positive sense. In 1789, William Gordon published a history of the American Revolution in which he credits a Cambridge, Massachusetts farmer named John Hastings with using Yankee as an adjective meaning excellent as far back as 1713. John Hastings actually existed, but we have no other sources that credit his usage of the term, which is in contradiction to the general usage during the Colonial period.

The leading hypothesis as to its origin is that it is from the Dutch janke, meaning a diminutive of the name Jan. The OED2 favors this explanation, as does American Heritage and Ayto.

The second leading hypothesis is that it is from Jan Kaas, literally John Cheese, a nickname for the Dutch that parallels the British John Bull. Usage of Jan Kaas has been dated in Europe to the 1650s. The term could have been applied to Dutch pirates in the Caribbean (hence the 1680s references) and later shifted to New Englanders. Mencken favors this explanation, saying that the term was probably applied by Dutch New Yorkers to New Englanders "whose commercial enterprise outran their moral scruples." Thrifty New Englanders like Hastings may have taken this as a compliment.

Other, less likely origins have also been suggested:

The earliest suggestion comes from Thomas Anburey, a British officer serving under Burgoyne in 1789. He claims it comes from the Cherokee word eankke meaning coward. Supposedly, it was first applied by Virginians to New Englanders who refused to help them in their war with the Cherokees. No other reference to the Cherokee word has been found, however.

Others starting with the Rev. John Heckewelder (1819) and James Fenimore Cooper (1841), claim it derives from an American Indian corruption of the word English. Various supposed Indian words, such as Yengees, are claimed to support this hypothesis.

Washington Irving, in his Knickerbocker's History of New York, facetiously claims it comes from a MaisTchuseg (Massachusett) word Yanokies meaning silent men. Some have taken this to be a serious suggestion.

Another hoax appeared in an 1810 Boston newspaper. It claimed that it derived from a Persian word, jenghe, meaning warlike man or swift horse. The article was a parody of Noah Webster's writings and, again, some have taken it seriously.

The Pennsylvania Evening Post in 1775 suggested that it came from the name of an Indian tribe, the Yankoos, which meant invincible ones. Despite the patriotic sympathy exhibited by the paper, there is no other evidence of the existence of this tribe.

Various British dialectical words have also been suggested. Yankee was supposedly a Lincolnshire word for gaiters or leggings. In Scots, yankie means a forward, clever woman and yanking is an adjective meaning pushy, forward. Another dialect word, jank means excrement, although this one is pronounced with the /j/ sound, not the /y/. "
"Women don't really wanna hear men's opinion, they just wanna hear their opinion in a deeper voice..." Razz
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Ble Medlem: 27 Feb 2008
Innlegg: 5071

InnleggSkrevet: 08 10 10 13:00    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Ja, det finnes nok sikkert mange forklaringer til ordets opphav.
Forklaringene som du viser til virker også sannsynlige.


"An nescis, mi fili, quantilla sapientia mundus regatur?"
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Ble Medlem: 22 Feb 2008
Innlegg: 82
Bosted: Akershus

InnleggSkrevet: 31 10 10 17:10    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Beli ser ut til å ha brukt samme referanse som jeg: Ihvertfall er min kilde enig med Beli

1683, a name applied disparagingly by Dutch settlers in New Amsterdam (New York) to English colonists in neighboring Connecticut. It may be from Du. Janke, lit. "Little John," dim. of common personal name Jan; or it may be from Jan Kes familiar form of "John Cornelius," or perhaps an alteration of Jan Kees, dialectal variant of Jan Kaas, lit. "John Cheese," the generic nickname the Flemings used for Dutchmen. It originally seems to have been applied insultingly to the Dutch, especially freebooters, before they turned around and slapped it on the English. A less-likely theory is that it represents some southern New England Algonquian language mangling of English. In English a term of contempt (1750s) before its use as a general term for "native of New England" (1765); during the American Revolution it became a disparaging British word for all American native or inhabitants. Shortened form Yank in reference to "an American" first recorded 1778.
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Ble Medlem: 22 Feb 2008
Innlegg: 1652

InnleggSkrevet: 02 11 10 02:33    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Her er Oxford English Dictionary med kilder / eksempler på bruk, som som støtter første taler her>

Yankee, n. and a.


Also 8–9 Yankey, Yanky, pl. Yankies.

[Source unascertained.
   The two earliest statements as to its origin were published in 1789: Thomas Anburey, a British officer who served under Burgoyne in the War of Independence, in his Travels II. 50 derives Yankee from Cherokee eankke slave, coward, which he says was applied to the inhabitants of New England by the Virginians for not assisiting them in a war with the Cherokees; William Gordon in Hist. Amer. War states that it was a favourite word with farmer Jonathan Hastings of Cambridge, Mass., c 1713, who used it in the sense of ‘excellent’. Appearing next in order of date (1822) is the statement which has been most widely accepted, viz. that the word has been evolved from North American Indian corruptions of the word English through Yengees to Yankees (Heckewelder, Indian Nations iii. ed. 1876, p. 77); cf. Yengees.

Perhaps the most plausible conjecture is that it comes from Du. Janke, dim. of Jan John, applied as a derisive nickname by either Dutch or English in the New England states (J. N. A. Thierry, 1838, in Life of Ticknor, 1876, II. vii. 124). The existence of Yank(e)y, Yankee, as a surname or nickname (often with Dutch associations) is vouched for by the following references:
1683 Cal. St. Papers, Colon. Ser. (1898) 457 They [sc. pirates] sailed from Bonaco‥; chief commanders, Vanhorn, Laurens, and Yankey Duch. 1684 Ibid. 733 A sloop‥unlawfully seized by Captain Yankey. 1687 Ibid. (1899) 456 Captains John Williams (Yankey) and Jacob Everson (Jacob). 1687–8 MSS. Earl of Dartmouth in 11th Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 136 The pirates Yanky and Jacobs. 1697 Dampier Voy. I. iii. 38. 1725 Inventory of W. Marr of Carolina in N. & Q. 5th Ser. X. 467 Item one negroe man named Yankee to be sold.
Cf. also ‘Dutch yanky’ s.v. yanky.]

A.A n.

1. a.A.1.a U.S. A nickname for a native or inhabitant of New England, or, more widely, of the northern States generally; during the War of Secession applied by the Confederates to the soldiers of the Federal army.

   1765 Oppression, a Poem by an American (with notes by a North Briton) 17 From meanness first this Portsmouth Yankey rose. Note, ‘Portsmouth Yankey’, It seems, our hero being a New-Englander by birth, has a right to the epithet of Yankey; a name of derision, I have been informed, given by the Southern people on the Continent, to those of New-England: what meaning there is in the word, I never could learn.    1775 J. Trumbull McFingal i. 1 When Yankies, skill'd in martial rule, First put the British troops to school. Editor's note, Yankies—a term formerly of derision, but now merely of distinction, given to the people of the four eastern States.    1775 Penna Gazette 10 May in N. & Q. 1st Ser. VI. 57/1 They [sc. the British troops] were roughly handled by the Yankees, a term of reproach for the New Englanders, when applied by the regulars.    1778 Muse's Mirrour I. 220 O My Yankee, my Yankee, And O my Yankee, my sweet-ee, And was its nurse North asham'd Because such a bantling hath beat-ee?    1817 M. Birkbeck Notes Journ. Amer. (1818) 19 The enterprising people [at Richmond, Virginia] are mostly strangers; Scotch, Irish, and especially New England men, or Yankees, as they are called.    1825 J. Neal Bro. Jonathan i. I. 13 He was a Yankee, the very character of whom is, that he can ‘turn his hand’, as he says, ‘to any thing’.    1891 Duncan Amer. Girl in London 23 The Yankees are the New Englanders,‥the name would once have been taken as an insult by a Southerner.

b.A.1.b By English writers and speakers commonly applied to a native or inhabitant of the United States generally; an American.
   Applied occas. to a ship (cf. Frenchman, etc.).

   c 1784 Nelson Let. to Locker in A. Duncan Life (1806) 321, I‥am determined not to suffer the Yankies to come where the ship is.    1796 T. Twining Trav. Amer. (1894) 68 Their wit was particularly directed against a ‘Yankee’ who was one of the company. We apply this designation as a term of ridicule or reproach to the inhabitants of all parts of the United States indiscriminately; but the Americans confine its application to their countrymen of the Northern or New England States.    1798 C. Smith Yng. Philos. III. 11 If thou marriedst the heiress, thou must give up thy little American, thy fascinating yankey.    1836 Haliburton Clockm. Ser. i. ix, I'll be d―d, said he, if ever I saw a Yankee that didn't bolt his food whole like a Boa Constrictor.    1851 Blackw. Mag. LXIX. 409/2 When we next saw the Yankee [sc. a frigate], there we were coming right down upon him over the breast of the sea.    1887 ‘Edna Lyall’ Knight-Errant xvii, I really am Italian, though Signor Sardoni will call me a little Yankee.

2.A.2 [ellipt. use of the adj.] The Yankee language, the dialect of New England; loosely, American English generally.

   1824 J. Gilchrist Etymol. Interpr. 8 The naked savages of Indiana already speak a corrupt English (or Yankee).    1836 Haliburton Clockm. Ser. i. i, You did not come form Halifax, I presume, sir, did you? in a dialect too rich to be mistaken as genuine Yankee.    1840 ― Letter Bag iii. 34 Coarse jokes in English, German, French, and Yankee.

3.A.3 Whisky sweetened with molasses. local U.S. colloq.

   1804 Fessenden Orig. Poems 97 Call on me when you come this way, And take a dram of Yankee.

4.A.4 pl. Stock Exchange slang. American stocks or securities.

   1887 Pall Mall Gaz. 6 Sept. 12/1 There was great excitement in the American market yesterday, and the bulls are cherishing the hope that there is to be a sustained boom in ‘Yankees’.    1908 Daily Chron. 13 Mar. 1/7 Yankees finished higher on the lead from Wall Street.

5.A.5 A name for various special tools of American origin, or of ingenious design. (Cf. Yankee notions in C.)

   1909 Cent. Dict. Supp.

6.A.6 = Yankee jib in sense C. b. below.

   1912 Heckstall-Smith & Du Boulay Compl. Yachtsman vi. 152 The ‘Yankee’ is a strong pulling sail.    1953 Yachting June 48 We handed the yankee in favor of the working jib and forestops'l.    1967 J. Anderson Vinland Voyage 211 Peter decided to use the No. 2 yankee, leaving the big No. 1 to its proper job of pulling forward.    1974 Islander (Victoria, B.C.) 11 Aug. 11/1 We were lost without the mizzen. With motor and yankee we inched our way‥forward.

7.A.7 Horse-racing. A composite bet on four or more horses, composed of doubles, trebles, and one or more accumulators.

   1967 C. Cockburn I, Claud xxxiii. 404, I stepped into the betting-shop and placed the type of bet known as a ‘Yankee’ on four of the races.‥ I was able to collect‥over £72 for the twenty-two shillings I had bet.    1970 Guardian 17 Apr. 12/3, I have‥won in 4-, 5- and 6-horse yankees sums of up to £200.    1981 B. Hines Looks & Smiles 184, I won it on the horses. Me and Phil had a Yankee up.

B.B adj. a.B.a That is a Yankee; pertaining to or characteristic of Yankees (often with the connotation of cleverness, cunning, or cold calculation); loosely, belonging to the United States, American.

   1781 A. Bell in Southey Life (1844) I. 37 The whole coast infested with Yanky privateers.    1784 A. Adams Lett. (1848) 161 We have curtains, it is true, and we only in part undress, about as much as the Yankee bundlers.    1822 Cobbett Weekly Reg. 9 Mar. 633, I was on board a little Yankee sloop in the Bay of Funday.    1828 (title) The Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette.    1829 Marryat Frank Mildmay xx, I will show you a Yankee trick.    1886 Froude Oceana 357 California with its gold and its cornfields,‥its ‘heathen Chinese’ and its Yankee millionaires, was a land of romance.

b.B.b Used of or in reference to the language or dialect: cf. A. 2.

   a 1854 Whittier Charms & Fairy Faith Pr. Wks. 1880 II. 239 A sort of Yankee-Irish dialect.    1866 Lowell Biglow P. Introd., Wks. 1890 II. 170 Of Yankee preterites I find risse and rize for rose in Beaumont and Fletcher, Middleton and Dryden.

C.C Comb., etc. a.C.a gen., as Yankee-like, Yankee-looking adjs.

   1799 Aurora (Phila.) 30 Sept. (Thornton Amer. Gloss.) Faith, 'twill be Yankee like, and plagued funny.    1836 Haliburton Clockm. Ser. i. xvii, I heard him ax the groom who that are Yankee lookin feller was.

b.C.b Special combinations and collocations. Yankee bet Horse-racing = sense A. 7 above; Yankee gang, name in Canada for a special arrangement of gang-saws (see quot.); Yankee jib (topsail), a large jib topsail used in light winds, set on the topmast stay; Yankee-land, the land of Yankees, New England; loosely, the United States; Yankee notions [notion 9 b], small wares or useful articles made in New England or the northern States; Yankee State, a nickname for Ohio.

   1964 A. Wykes Gambling viii. 194 (caption) The ‘*Yankee bet’ (a permutation bet covering four horses) that can be made with off-course bookmakers in Britain.    1976 Daily Record (Glasgow) 29 Nov. 23/5 Yankee bet: Six doubles, four trebles and an accumulator—Pikey (12.0 Windsor), Escapologist (1.45 Wolverhampton), Corrieghoil (2.15 Wolverhampton), Heidelberg (3.0 Windsor).

   1875 Knight Dict. Mech., *Yankee Gang, an arrangement in a saw-mill (Canada).‥ It consists of two sets of gang-saws, having parallel ways.‥ One is the slabbing-gang, and reduces the log to a balk and slab-boards. The balk is then shifted to the stock-gang, which rips it into lumber.

   [1904 B. Heckstall-Smith Dixon Kemp's Man. of Yacht & Boat Sailing (ed. 10) v. 94 The sheeting of a modern large jackyard topsail requires a master hand's attention, especially when it is fitted ‘Yankee fashion’, having three sheets, as very many now are—namely, the main topsail sheet, the outer and inner sheets on the ends of the jackyard.]    1912 Heckstall-Smith & Du Boulay Compl. Yachtsman vi. 152 A useful sail is the *Yankee jib-topsail. This is the largest or balloon jib-topsail, and the modern and most efficient form of balloon jib-topsail is cut, like all modern head-sails should be, very high in the clew.    1928 Daily Mail 9 Aug. 19/6 There is a Yankee jib which, as one sail, covers more than the combined area of jib and foresail.    1939 U. Fox Crest of Wave 145 We had settled down with the large Yankee jib topsail set in the place of the double clewed jib.    1976 Yachts & Yachting 20 Aug. 339/3 At 30 knots across the deck she dropped her yankee jib and kept going under staysail and heavily reefed main.

   1803 in Spirit Publ. Jrnls. VI. 350 More wit from *Yankee-land.    1837 Hawthorne Amer. Note-bks. 13 July (1883) 57 It sounds strangely to hear children bargaining in French on the borders of Yankee-land.

   1819 Mass. Spy 8 Sept. (Thornton), I come here to retail My *Yankee notions,—cheese, wit, verse, codfishes, Cider, et cetera.    1825 J. Neal Bro. Jonathan xxii. II. 298 The tallow, corn, cotton, hams, hides, and so forths, which we had got, in exchange for a load of Yankee notions.    1889 Century Mag. May 82/1, I saw the American tin-ware, lanterns, and ‘Yankee notions’.

   1884 Harper's Mag. June 125/1 Ohio was called ‘the *Yankee State’.

Hence ˈYankee v. (rare—1), trans. to deal cunningly with like a Yankee, to cheat; ˈYankeedom, the realm or country of Yankees, the United States of America; Yankees as a body; ˈYankeyess, a depreciatory term for an American woman; ˈYankeefied (-faɪd) ppl. a., made or become like a Yankee; characteristic of a Yankee; ˈYankeeish a., resembling a Yankee (whence ˈYankeeishly adv., like a Yankee); ˈYankeeism, Yankee character or style; a Yankee characteristic or idiom; ˈYankeeize v., trans. to make Yankeeish, give a Yankee character to; ˈYankeeness, Yankee character.

   1837 Fraser's Mag. XVI. 683 [They] are considered capable of ‘*Yankeeing’ the more simple-minded Canadians.

   1851 Blackw. Mag. Apr. 417/1 He ought to take steamer direct for *Yankeedom;‥they'd make him President at once!    1890 R. Broughton Alas! i. viii, Yankeedom and Cockneydom, rushing hand in hand through all earth's sacredness.

   1852 Q. Rev. Mar. 297 The *Yankeyesses who urge the convenience of a manly garb.

   1846 Jas. Taylor Upper Canada 47 Some of the Canadians indulge in the *Yankeefied habit of bolting down their victuals.    1897 Voice (N.Y.) 14 Jan. 8 Japan is getting Yankeefied in more ways than one.

   1818 H. C. Robinson Diary 30 Apr. (1967) 58 Allston has a mild manner, a soft voice, and a sentimental air with him, not at all *Yankyish.    1830 Collegian (Cambridge, Mass.) Apr. 117 Comparisons are generally ‘odorous’, particularly Yankeeish, and decidedly condemned by Captain Basil Hall.

   1855 De Quincey in ‘H. A. Page’ Life (1877) II. xviii. 112 Waal, now, to speak *yankeeishly, I calculate your dander is rising.

   1820 Eclectic Rev. Apr. 359 The term unwell, when first brought up, was ridiculed as a *Yankee-ism.    1836 Fraser's Mag. XIII. 653 Guilty of all those Yankeeisms which distinguish the lout from the gentleman.    1865 Visct. Milton & W. B. Cheadle N.-W. Pass. by Land ii. (1867) 18 Irish or German Yankees;‥out-Heroding Herod in Yankeeism.

   1864 Guardian 20 Apr. 386 We begin to fear that England is becoming *Yankeeised.    1877 Sir F. Elliot in Dowden Corr. Sir H. Taylor 377 The most certain of political tendencies in England is what‥I will call the Yankeeising tendency.    1882 H. E. Scudder Noah Webster viii. 289 Hawthorne, Yankeeizing the Greek myths, and finding all Rome but the background for his Puritan maiden, was asserting that new discovery of Europe by America.

   1909 ‘O. Henry’ Roads of Destiny xxi. 352 Any *Yankeeness I may have is geographical.

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Ble Medlem: 27 Feb 2008
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InnleggSkrevet: 03 11 10 14:52    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Interessant Nyx.


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