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Amerika før Columbus: Den skjulte historien om det lovede la

 
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InnleggSkrevet: 23 12 09 22:52    Tittel: Amerika før Columbus: Den skjulte historien om det lovede la Svar med Sitat

Alternativ historieskrivning, som kanskje hører mer hjemme i Litteraturforumet?:

America Before Columbus

Rixon Stewart

The Hidden History of the Promised Land

It may sound a little over the top but it’s really no overstatement to say that much in our modern world is based on falsehood and fabrication. We are told, for example, that Columbus ‘discovered’ America in 1492, yet there is plenty of evidence to suggest that others had visited America before Columbus: including visitors from ancient Egypt, Phoenicia and medieval Europe. Despite this modern authorities continue to push the line that “Columbus discovered America.”

In point of fact Columbus himself never even set eyes upon America; the closest he got to the mainland of North America was Puerto Rica. However in the aftermath of Columbus’s voyage John Cabot sailed from Bristol, England; which in turn opened the way for the first colony in Jamestown, Virginia and thus allowed the English to claim America as their own. Yet there is considerable evidence that suggests that others from different cultures preceded Cabot and Columbus. So one is forced to ask: why, when there is much to suggest that others from different cultures preceded Columbus, don’t we hear more about this possibility being investigated? Could it be that certain powers have a vested interest in keeping our real history under wraps?

Whatever the answer the fact remains that a great deal has been unearthed which is completely at odds with conventional notions regarding the origins of what we know today as America. In fact according to some contemporary authorities, the Native Americans encountered by the early settlers from England were not what they appeared to be. They were indeed native to the Americas but they were not its original inhabitants, who according to various tribal legends, had disappeared eons before in a series of cataclysms.

Of course this is so at odds with the dictates of modern science, history and archaeology that one would expect it to be rejected out of hand, as indeed it has been. This is not so easily done though with a landmark tower in Newport, Rhode Island. Curiously the tower is built in the style of a medieval look out and has been dated back to the fourteenth century. As if to emphasize its antiquity Italian navigator Giovanni de Verrazano recorded the tower whilst mapping the coastline in 1524, marking its location as an existing “Norman Villa”. Similar evidence can be found in Westford, Massachusetts, where a rock engraving can be found depicting a figure dressed like fourteenth century knight. Intriguingly the figure carries a shield portraying the emblem of a ship following a single star.

Of course this may simply be dismissed as a modern day hoax but this can’t be so easily done with Scotland’s Rosslyn Chapel; where clear depictions of ears of corn or maize and aloe cactus, both unknown in medieval Scotland, can be found on some of the archways and ceilings. These stone carvings are an integral part of the Chapel, which was only completed in 1486; that’s a full six years before Columbus is said to have embarked on his voyage of discovery. The standard line is that both maize and aloe cactus were only found after Columbus had sailed West. Thus, according to authors Knight and Lamar Rosslyn Chapel amounts to clear . . . “evidence that the men who instructed the masons of Rosslyn Chapel must have visited America at least a quarter of a century before Columbus.”

All of which prompts one to ask: if the actual discovery of the America’s could have been concealed for so long what more could be hidden? The answer to that, as you shall see, is a whole lot more.

These and other finds are given further credence by the very history of the Knights Templar. And it’s a history that adds an even more intriguing twist to the story of discovery of America. The Order of the Knights Templar was originally founded in Jerusalem in 1118, when nine French Knights asked King Baldwin to be allowed to protect pilgrims travelling to the Holy Land. Their request was granted and significantly they were also granted permission to stay in the ruins of Solomon’s Temple; for it was here, according to some researchers, that they made discoveries that would ultimately change the very course of history.

Once established in the ruins they began excavations that yielded untold treasures, both in terms of material wealth and even more precious knowledge. It was through this knowledge that the original Templar’s obtained an insight that allowed them to question much of orthodox Christianity. An insight through which they recognized that the established Church had misinterpreted much of the original Christian teaching: including the Virgin Birth, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and reincarnation. According to writer and researcher David Hatcher Childress: “To the Templars, the true church, one that taught mysticism, reincarnation and good works was being suppressed by a dark power that called itself the one true faith.”

And just in case you thought that Christianity never taught anything about reincarnation, take note: prior to the Council of Nicaea the idea of reincarnation was an integral part of the Christian faith. That ended however with the first Council of Nicaea in A.D.325. Convened by Emperor Constantine of Rome the Council effectively settled various theological disputes and ratified what was to become Holy Roman Law, the official version of the word of God. In the process the very notion of reincarnation as part of the Christian faith was consigned to the waste bin of history.

Armed with this new knowledge the power and influence of Order of the Knights Templar rapidly increased. By the mid thirteenth century the Order owned about nine thousand castles and manors across Europe. Along with material acquisition came a reputation that left many in Medieval Europe in awe. The Templar’s distinctive white surcoat, emblazoned with a red cross, was always seen in the thick of battle; indeed they quickly established a reputation comparable to modern fighting elites such as Britain’s SAS, the U.S. Marines and Airborne or Russia’s Spetnaz.

More than simply being a political and military power though they also became a force to be reckoned with in the fields of cultural and metaphysical endeavour too. For it was the Templar’s who instigated the first stonemasons guilds and introduced new building methods with skills inspired, in part, by what they had learned in Jerusalem. Prior to these European buildings had been built for practicality and defence; generally plain structures with little in the way of inspirational design but that too were about to change. In the space of a few decades, Europe saw the appearance of a string of new churches and cathedrals with high vaulted ceilings, flying buttresses and dazzling stained glass windows. All of which was to lay much of the groundwork for the future Renaissance and the Templar’s were very much the driving force behind it.

Yet by then the Templar’s power and influence had increased to such an extent that they were seen by Rome as a danger to itself, a challenge to the official word of God. So on Friday, October 13th, 1307 the Church of Rome made its move and at the same time bestowed on Friday 13th the sinister connotations which have remained ever since. With the blessing of Pope Clement V, King Philip of France drew up a list of charges against the Order; falsely accusing them of everything from homosexuality, abortion, necromancy and use of the black arts. On the dawn of Friday 13th his forces seized, interrogated, tortured and burned the captured Templars. Many escaped though, including the Templar Fleet, which sailed to safe haven in Scotland. At the time Scotland was ruled by Robert the Bruce and at odds with England so the Scots readily accepted help from anyone who was willing to offer it. In return the Knights Templar would play a critical role in the Battle of Bannockburn. Just as the Battle hung in balance the Scots, outnumbered two to one by the English, were suddenly reinforced by a contingent of mounted Knights; with long flowing beards and a bold red cross emblazoned on their white tunics the newcomers helped swing the battle in the Scot’s favour..

The Templar ships were not anchored for long in Scotland though; a large part of the fleet, consisting of 12 ships and over 300 men, sailed on across the Atlantic to take refuge in America.

America? You may ask, how did they know about America?

Well according to Knight and Lomas, the Masonic authors of The Hiram Key, the original Knights Templar may well have acquired key manuscripts whilst resident in Solomen’s Temple in Jerusalem. Amongst them manuscripts from the Mandaean sect which believed that John the Baptist was the true Messiah and that the souls of the good went to a land far across the sea, a wonderful land, a promised land marked by a star called . . . “Merica.” Which calls to mind the rock engraving of a medieval knight in Westford, Massachusetts; the engraved knight carries a shield portraying the emblem of a ship following a single shining star.


An engraved stone from the Burrows Cave find. Note the man's beard, a feature unknown among native Americans, and the sailing ship to his right

mer...

Kilde: http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/article.asp?ID=139

Underlig historie
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Ble Medlem: 06 Mar 2010
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InnleggSkrevet: 06 03 10 23:04    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Relieffet ? Kaldeisk, assyrisk, eller muligens sumerisk. Men det betyr ikke at det er ekte!
At andre utenfra kom før Colombus ? Ja , det beviste jo Helge Ingstad med sine utgravinger på New Foundland.
At andre har vært der både før og også etter grønlenderne, men før Columbus ? Joda meget trolig det. Skip på havet kommer ofte ut for storm etc, og kommer ut av kurs. Men kom de seg tilbake til utgangspunktet, det er spørsmålet. I følge kildene, vitenskapen må trass alt basere seg på dem, så har de nok ikke gjort det så langt man vet.
Personlig har jeg reflektert over et annet mysterium i denne konteksten. Nemlig i hvor stor grad var de norrøne grønlendere i stand til å"kolonisere" den nye verden. Man har jo kommet over en del materiale i de senere år, blandt annet en norsk mynt fra trettehundretallet funnet i en søppelfyllig i tilknytning til en gammel indianerleir på USAs østkyst. Det skal også ha vært funnet noen runesteiner, men disse virker å være av heller tvilsom autensitet. Ja, og så har vi det berømte vinlandskaretet, som vekselvis har blitt hevdet å være et falsum, og vekselvis autentisk.
Og til sist , hva hendte med grønnlendingene ? Særlig det største mysteriet i så måte, befolkningen i vesterbygda ?
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Ble Medlem: 16 Aug 2008
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InnleggSkrevet: 07 03 10 00:46    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Herodot skrev:
Og til sist , hva hendte med grønnlendingene ? Særlig det største mysteriet i så måte, befolkningen i vesterbygda ?

Interessant problemstilling, som var ny for meg, men her er noen interessante spekulasjoner, som jeg snublet over under googling på: "vesterbygda"

ABCNYHETER:

Norsk språk bak eldgammelt indianersagn
Et gammelt indiansk sagn kan være basert på gammelnorsk, mener den norske amatørforskeren Frode Th. Omdahl.

En norsk amatørforsker på det eldre Amerika har vært med på å tyde historien til Lenape-indianere i nordøststatene. Nå viser det seg at indianerspråket kan ha norrøn opprinnelse, og gamle sagn forteller om hvordan noen av deres forfedre migrerte fra Grønland til Amerika.

Sagen Ramsfjeld nevnte også forfatteren Reider T. Sherwin, som skulle ha skrevet en bok hvor det ble hevdet at enkelte indianerstammer i nordøstamerika faktisk snakket gammelnorsk. Omdahl fattet interesse og begynte å lete etter boken, som viste seg å ikke bare være én, men hele åtte bind med samme tittel (The Viking and the Red Man. Old Norse Origin of the Algonquin Language).


Norskamerikaneren Reider T. Sherwin fattet interesse for algonkin-språket etter at han hørte et stedsnavn som han mente han gjenkjente fra norske dialekter. På et kart over New England fant han en rekke stedsnavn som betydde tilnærmet det samme på gammelnorsk og algonkin, og begynte å sammenligne språkene. Han dro slutningen at algonkin egentlig var basert på norrønt og at det gamle indiansersagnet Walam Olum var avledet av det norrøne «målan årum» - malte (avbildede) år. At algonkin inneholder gammelnorske ord er altså ikke et nytt funn, men Omdahl og Paine bruker Sherwins bøker for å dechiffrere Walam Olum-sagnet.

Kilde: http://www.abcnyheter.no/node/44308

Interessante spekulasjoner. Og klarer de å påvise flere likheter med algonkin og gammelnorsk, enn hva som kan forventes av normale fonetiske og språklige tilfeldigheter, får det jo litt kjøtt på beina også, dette.
Jeg fant noe mer:

The HISTORIAN, the RECORDER, and the EDITOR
of
The WALAM OLUM


How was the Walam Olum message converted to English?

The best written record, made in 1898, tells us that an old Lenape man, who knew the words associated with the pictographs, recited the story to a Moravian priest some time after 1821. The priest recorded the sounds he heard into English letters. Then Mr. Rafinesque spent years trying to understand the language before he edited and published the Walam Olum in 1836.

Creating a mental picture of these episodes is difficult. The Lenape Historian and the Moravian Recorder must have interacted through out several weeks. Their interaction may have occurred a few years after the chaotic period in the Lenape tribe that resulted in the giving of the pictographs to Dr. Ward. The Historian and Recorder must have had a mutually trustful relationship and circumstances to enable a prolonged verbal exchange.

There must have been some complications. The Historian knew the verses for each pictograph, so he may have learned the verses in his own preparation to be a Historian. The verses he learned must have been passed from mind to mouth to mind through more than 16 generations. He may have spoken most of the words in the language of the 1800's, but some words may have been recited from memory. A Lenape about seventy (70) years later said that he recognized most of the words except for those words spoken in a dialect. So most of the Walam Olum words must have been in common use during the 1800s.

The Historian and the Recorder must have had difficulty transmitting the sounds. In a few verses two words meaning the same thing were spelled differently. A prefix was added to the previous word as a suffix. A simple conjunction sound was split. Over an over Old Norse phrases were written as one Walam Olum word. Yet Walam Olum words having comparable Algonquin words were divided, making their recognition more difficult to a later Algonquin reader.

The meanings of some words must have changed during the generations of memory recitation. Some syllables of the original words slipped away. Some of the ancient words appear to have been memorized with unknown syllables retained. The original Old Norse words contain the unknown syllables, which were not used in Algonquin speech of the 1800s. So far there has not been an occurance where the Walam Olum words had more symbols than the Old Norse phrase. Thus, Old Norse appears to be the orininating language.

The Historian may have given words the meaning based on similar concurrent words in his 1800s language. A few of the words may have been explained incorrectly. But the Editor, who did not speak the Algonquin language, may have caused more confusion in the original English translation. The Editior revised the English and may have changed a few Algonquin words to make the Walan Olum conform more to his viewpoint.

The Editor had learned of the Turtle myths of several tribes. He impressed the "turtle" name unto a word meaning, "deserted" or "solitude." In two verses the Editor apparently changed the Algonquin word "west," to "east" so the travels in the Walam Olum matched the Editor's very strong belief that the Algonquins migrated from the west to the east. Directions cited in a subsequent verse indicate that the Walam Olum people left the North, East, and South to travel to the West.

A major Editorial substitution was for the word "Akomen." The Editor apparently chose to compare "Ako" with the "askook" word used by some Algonquins to describe snakes. The Old Norse word "skakk" means slanted (compare to modern English "askew"). The Algonquins, speaking Old Norse, often named animals for their behavior. Snakes traveled "askew." So snakes were named "askook," The Editor used the askook association to write, in English, "Snake land" for the Akomen word.

But in the 1700s there were "Accu" place names in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Delaware. Associated with those names were tribes named, by the French, "Nauset" A good hypothesis is that "Akomen" was a valid name for Northeast America. A strait near Scotland was named for King Haakon Haakon IV of Norway when his fleet just sailed through. Northeast America may have been named for King Haakon about 1260 when he was the commander of the best (and largest) navy in the world.

So the Editor translated "turtles and snakes" where there were none and slipped in "to the east" phrases in Algonquin instead of "to the west." These Editorial changes caused disbelief among Lenape who had memories of migrating to the west. Many Lenape readers believed that the English version of their history was really a "white man's creation."

Other translation errors are harder to trace to the recording phase or the editing phase. An English phrase for a Walam Olum "word" was left out. Was the omission an honest mistake or was it edited out because the phrase was not believable to the Editor? There appears to be a morphing of "l," "n," and "a" sounds. Did the morphing occur during the generations of memory transmission or during the recording session when the Moravian priest may not have heard the exact sounds spoken by the Algonquin Historian?

Almost every word of the Walam Olum can be deciphered by using Reider T. Sherwin's eight volumes of The Viking and the Red Man. During the decipherment the inconsistencies discovered are consistent with a history spoken in Old Norse, transmitted by memory through more than 16 generations, recorded by a Moravian priest listening to an Algonquin Historian and Edited by a man with strong beliefs which were not correct.

This remarkable history deserves recognition in North America.

Kilde: http://www.frozentrail.org/nations/

Både Sherwins arbeider og Walam Olum er omstridt og omdiskutert, både blant indianere og hvite.
- Det finnes mange historikere blant algonkin-stammene som går god for teoriene og som er helt klare på at de har «vikinger» blant forfedrene sine. Ingen av de vi har snakket med er villige til å gå med på, som Sherwin hevder, at algonkinsk er gammelnorsk, men vedgår at norrønt nok har influert sterkt på språket deres, forteller Omdahl.

- Og det har de nok helt rett i. William Commanda, «skattmester» i en av algonkinstammene i Kanada, var for noen år siden avbildet i magasinet Ancient American med et av stammens kjæreste eier i hendene. Dette var en «skatt» som hadde vært i stammens eie i flere hundre år. Det var en primstav! Da Myron Paine for snart tre år siden besøkte ham, spurte Myron ham hvorfor de ikke hadde fortalt dette før. «Det er ingen som har spurt oss», var svaret.
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Ble Medlem: 06 Mar 2010
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InnleggSkrevet: 07 03 10 01:48    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Har hørt om disse folkene tidligere. Det var visst en historie om en norsk sjøkaptein på seksten eller syttenhundretallet, i enten hollandsk eller britisk tjeneste, det var mange av det slaget på den tiden, som skulle ha kommunisert med dem på gammel-norsk.
Forøvrig kan det nevnes at den siste kilden, hva angår det norrøne Amerika, skal være en benevning i den islandske sagaen om et skip som kom fra Markland (Labrador) til Island i 1347.
Forøvrig hadde forfatteren Prytz en del ineressante teorier i sin bok: Vestover før Colombus, synest faktisk å erindre at han ga ut to bøker om temaet, ja så er det jo Helge Ingstads to bøker : Landet under leidarstjernen, og I vesterveg til Vinland.
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Ble Medlem: 16 Aug 2008
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InnleggSkrevet: 07 03 10 02:20    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Herodot skrev:
Har hørt om disse folkene tidligere. Det var visst en historie om en norsk sjøkaptein på seksten eller syttenhundretallet, i enten hollandsk eller britisk tjeneste, det var mange av det slaget på den tiden, som skulle ha kommunisert med dem på gammel-norsk.

Morsomt. Pussig at jeg aldri har hørt om dette før. Men det har kanskje vært ansett, som for spekulativt, til å omtales.
Hjemmesiden: FROZEN TRAIL to MERICA http://www.frozentrail.org/ gir inntrykket at forskning pågår. Men, det er dårlig med dateringer, så det kan jo også være gammelt og gravlagt. Men, så lenge websiden fremdeles eksisterer, indikerer vel det at det er en viss aktivitet fremdeles. Og artikkelen i ABCNYHETER, indikerer jo at det er interesse rundt dette, som dette sitatet viser: "Vi arbeider nå med en faktabok om de sporene som finnes etter den norrøne befolkningen på Grønland som forsvant «sporløst» etter nesten 500 års kolonisering der. Sporene er mange, de finnes i tillegg til i språket også i mytologien, i jorda og i blodet, avslutter Frode Th. Omdahl."
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Ble Medlem: 06 Mar 2010
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InnleggSkrevet: 07 03 10 13:38    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Er litt skeptisk til de påstandene som kommer frem på den siden. Ser at de bygger på Keningtonsteinens fremstilling. Den steinen må vel kunne sies etter all sannsynlighet å være et falsum.
Jeg tror nok at de norrøne grønlendinger hadde en større tilstedeværelse i Nord-Amerika enn hva man hittil har trodd, men Kensington stenen er nok ikke noe bevis.
Du kan jo se litt på historikken rundt stenen, det hele er nok litt for søkt, og for mange "tilfeldigheter" knyttet til funnet av den, og ikke minst stedet der den ble funnet. Det samme kan man vel si om noen av de "funnene" som dukket opp i Canada i sin tid.
Nei, da er funnet av den gamle mynten et bedre bevis etter min mening.
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