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Testing a Language - Using a Parrot for Telepathy

 
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Ble Medlem: 16 Aug 2008
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InnleggSkrevet: 20 09 09 16:29    Tittel: Testing a Language - Using a Parrot for Telepathy Svar med Sitat

Testing a Language - Using a Parrot for Telepathy

Journal of Scientific Exploration 17, pp. 601-615 (2003)
by Rupert Sheldrake and Aimée Morgana


N'kisi:


ABSTRACT
Aimee Morgana skrev:
N'kisi is a captive bred, hand raised Congo African Gray Parrot. He is 4-1/2 years old, and his species has a life span similar to humans. He has received teaching in the use of language for 4 years. He is now one of the world's top "language-using" animals, with an apparent understanding and appropriate usage of over 700 words. Aimee intuitively taught N'kisi as one would a child, by explaining things to him in context. (This goes beyond typical interactions with a "pet", involving many hours per day of teaching and conversations.) He is treated as a member of the family. N'kisi was not trained like a performing animal, and does not just mimic or use speech "on cue". Instead, he has been allowed to develop his own creative relationship to language as a means of self-expression. N'kisi speaks in sentences, showing a grasp of grammar in formulating his own original expressions. He is capable of actual conversations. He often initiates comments about what we are doing, feeling, looking at, thinking, etc, which is how we discovered his ability to read minds. N'kisi often demonstrates telepathy in spontaneous situations, and also communicates love, compassion, and a keen sense of humor. Language-using animals are like "animal ambassadors" helping to bridge the worlds of other species with our own. In the wild, parrots live in large flocks with complex social interactions, which have yet to be studied.
http://www.sheldrake.org/nkisi/

About Aimee Morgana:

Sitat:
Since childhood, Aimee has had an intuitive connection with animals, and used these insights in developing her own techniques for teaching parrots to use language. Aimee has been working with parrots since 1985. Her goal is to establish a true communicative dialogue with a member of another species. Unlike laboratory researchers, Aimee decided to give N'kisi "dominance" in their relationship, relinquishing control to open the door for his creativity. She wanted to find out what a parrot might actually have to say, which would reveal fascinating information about how these animals think. Aimee's ongoing work with N'Kisi illustrates her concept of "partnership research," an approach which honors and explores the close relationships people can have with animals as friends and teachers. Aimee is part of an emerging group of conceptually based artists interested in exploring our human relationship with Nature in work dealing with animals, biology, environmental concerns, and quantum aspects of consciousness. In a dynamic cross-fertilization of approaches, some of these artists have begun collaborating with scientists in new-paradigm research projects that bridge the disciplines of Art and Science
http://www.sheldrake.org/nkisi/


Aimée Morgana noticed that her language-using African Grey parrot, N'kisi, often seemed to respond to her thoughts and intentions in a seemingly telepathic manner. We set up a series of trials to test whether this apparent telepathic ability would be expressed in formal tests in which Aimée and the parrot were in different rooms, on different floors, under conditions in which the parrot could receive no sensory information from Aimée or from anyone else.

During these trials Aimée and the parrot were both videotaped continuously. At the beginning of each trial, Aimée opened a numbered sealed envelope containing a photograph, and then looked at it for two minutes. These photographs corresponded to a prespecified list of key words in N'kisi's vocabulary, and were selected and randomized in advance by a third party. We conducted a total of 149 two-minute trials. The recordings of N'kisi during these trials were transcribed blind by three independent transcribers. Their transcripts were generally in good agreement. Using a majority scoring method, in which at least two of the three transcribers were in agreement, N'kisi said one or more of the key words in 71 trials. He scored 23 hits: the key words he said corresponded to the target pictures.

In a Randomized Permutation Analysis (RPA), there were as many or more hits than N'kisi actually scored in only 5 out of 20,000 random permutations, giving a p value of 5/20,000 or 0.00025. In a Bootstrap Resampling Analysis (BRA), only 4 out of 20,000 permutations equalled or exceeded N'kisi's actual score (p = 0.0002). Both by the RPA and BRA the mean number of hits expected by chance was 12, with a standard deviation of 3. N'kisi repeated key words more when they were hits than when they were misses. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that N'kisi was reacting telepathically to Aimée's mental activity.

Kilde: http://www.sheldrake.org/Articles&Papers/papers/animals/parrot_telepathy_abs.html

Den fulle forsøksrapporten kan leses her: http://www.sheldrake.org/Articles&Papers/papers/animals/parrot_telepathy.html

More materials and discussion of the N'Kisi Project

The Perrott-Warrick Public Debate - Does Telepathy Happen? Rupert Sheldrake debates with Prof Chris French, Prof Simon Blackburn in the chair
Live Audio Recording (1hr 52min). from Trinity Hall Cambridge [mp3]

Morsomt forskningsprosjekt, men antagelig vil ingen tro på telepatiske papegøyer med humoristisk sans, peer reviewed eller ei. I det minste ikke før flere kan bekrefte resultatene i andre forsøk. Problemet er imidlertid at antagelig finnes det ikke andre, enn Rupert Sheldrake, som tør å risikere faglig anseelse på såpass kontroversiell forskning. Hvilket er mer enn trist. Ikke minst for forskningen og vitenskapen.
Galilei-faktoren er høy i det miljøet ser det ut som, noe ikke minst fordømmelsen av klimakjetterske forskere demonstrerer. Jf. MIT professor, Richard Lindzens artikkel i Wall Street Journal:

Climate of Fear: Global-warming alarmists intimidate dissenting scientists into silence.

Alarm rather than genuine scientific curiosity, it appears, is essential to maintaining funding. And only the most senior scientists today can stand up against this alarmist gale, and defy the iron triangle of climate scientists, advocates and policymakers.

Mr. Lindzen is Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Atmospheric Science at MIT.

Betingelsene er vel neppe bedre for forskere på humoristiske, telepatiske, papegøyer?
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demokrit
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Ble Medlem: 03 Aug 2008
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InnleggSkrevet: 20 09 09 21:08    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

Pussig forskning, truud.

Dette med telepati kommer jo opp med jevne mellomrom. Om det finnes skulle det være interessant å få den fysiske forklaringen på fenomenet.
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truud2
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Ble Medlem: 16 Aug 2008
Innlegg: 2565
Bosted: Norge

InnleggSkrevet: 20 09 09 21:39    Tittel: Svar med Sitat

demokrit skrev:
Pussig forskning, truud.
Dette med telepati kommer jo opp med jevne mellomrom. Om det finnes skulle det være interessant å få den fysiske forklaringen på fenomenet.

Ja, men telepati avfeies vel summarisk, på linje med spøkelser og UFO i forskermiljøer, så han er en modig maur Sheldrake, som alikevel trosser ortodoksien og tør å forsøke å fastslå om det finnes. Det er neppe uten risiko for egen fremtid som biolog og forsker.

Ingen vil bruke tid på å finne ut hvordan det fungerer før det er fastslått at det fungerer, så du hopper vel over forutsetningen for å forske på en forklaring, demokrit? Sheldrake har nok bare fulgt opp en del indikasjoner på at fenomenet kan eksistere for å prøve å fastslå hvorvidt det er riktig. Hittil har han brukt mest tid på dyreforsøk, har jeg inntrykket av. Antagelig fordi dyr anses ikke å kunne forstille seg. Han har oppsummert denne forskningen her: Unexplained Powers of Animals

Okke, som så er påstander om telepatisk kommunikasjon, en av disse tingene, som stadig lever videre, så det er interessant å se om han kommer frem til noe, som også andre kan bekrefte. Om det finnes noen andre som tør å forske på det. Mange er de, som blir opphisset av at han bedriver slik forskning, imidlertid. Og dømmer ham nord og ned, som useriøs

Her er Sheldrakes egen foreløpige konklusjon på forsøkene med N'kisi:

Conclusion:
As this study was strictly controlled against cues from any normal sensory means, and chance coincidence has been ruled out, these experiments provide compelling evidence of interspecies telepathy. This phenomenon is currently unexplained within the dominant scientific model. We are continuing our research and documentation of this astonishing phenomenon, as Aimee and N'kisi's ongoing work exploring avian language use opens a fascinating new window into our understanding of the animal mind. The fact that these experiments statistically prove that N'kisi's use of speech is not random also gives evidence of his sentience and intentional use of language. Though our work is just beginning, N'kisi has already shown aspects of intelligence that animals were thought to be incapable of, particularly a species that shares so little genetic similarity with humans. Globally, parrots are the most endangered of all birds, with the greatest number of species currently facing extinction due to poaching and habitat destruction. We hope our work will help people to realize the amazing abilities and awareness of these intelligent birds, and encourage greater care of these precious beings and the planetary environment we share.

Kilde: http://www.sheldrake.org/nkisi/

Søk på "N'kisi" ga en del interessante treff:
BBC: Apes can "talk" using hand gestures
og: Monkeys 'grasp basic grammar'

Men omtrent alle treffene som jeg tittet på, unngår temaet telepati, omhyggelig. Så dét fenoménet er det visst bare Rupert Sheldrake og eier Aimée Morgana, som tør å ytre interesse for og undersøke.

Kanskje ikke så underlig, at vi ikke vet noe om det? Rolling Eyes

Men, temaet dyrs kommunikasjonsevner/måter er sannelig interessant nok i seg selv også, dét.

Og Sheldrake og Morganas forsøk med N'kisi fortsetter, så vi får vel sjekke med prosjektsiden fremover for å se hvordan det går

Jeg siterer innledningen til den foreløpige forsøksrapporten, som viser hvorfor Sheldrake og Morgana ønsker å undersøke telepati-aspektet videre:

Introduction
Until the 1980s, within academic science it was generally assumed that parrots were mere mimics, “parroting” words with no understanding. Most scientific studies of human-to-animal linguistic communication were carried out with primates, using sign language (e.g. Patterson and Linden, 1981; Fouts, 1997).

In 1977, Irene Pepperberg began training and testing an African Grey parrot, Alex, and subsequently succeeded in showing that Alex and other parrots can use language meaningfully. Over 20 years of training, Alex acquired a vocabulary of more than 200 words, and Pepperberg established that he was capable of abstraction and of using language referentially. For example, he can grasp such concepts as “present” and “absent” and use words for colors appropriately, whatever the shape of the colored object (Pepperberg, 1999). Pepperberg and her colleagues have shown that parrots, although literally bird-brained, rival primates in their ability to use language meaningfully.

Inspired by seeing Alex on television, in 1997 Aimée Morgana began training a young male African Grey parrot, N’kisi (pronounced “in-key-see”) in the use of language. She did so by teaching him as if he were a human child, starting when he was 5 months old. She used two teaching techniques known as “sentence frames” and “cognitive mapping”. In sentence frames, words were taught by repeating them in various sentences such as, “Want some water? Look, I have some water.” Cognitive mapping reinforced meanings that might not yet be fully understood. For example, if N’kisi said “water”, Aimee would show him a glass of water. By the time he was 5 years old, he had a contextual vocabulary of more than 700 words. He apparently understood the meanings of words, and used his language skills to make relevant comments. He ordinarily spoke in grammatical sentences, and by January 2002, Aimée had recorded more than 7,000 original sentences.

Although Aimée’s primary interest was in N’kisi’s use of language, she soon noticed that he said things that seemed to refer to her own thoughts and intentions. He did the same with her husband, Hana. After reading about Rupert Sheldrake’s research on telepathy in animals (Sheldrake, 1999), in January 2000 Aimee contacted Sheldrake and summarized some of her observations. At the same time, she began keeping a detailed log of seemingly telepathic incidents, and has continued to do so. By January 2002, she had recorded 630 such incidents. Here are a few examples:

“I was thinking of calling Rob, and picked up the phone to do so, and N’kisi said, ‘Hi, Rob,’ as I had the phone in my hand and was moving toward the Rolodex to look up his number.”

“We were watching the end credits of a Jackie Chan movie, edited to a musical soundtrack. There was an image of [Chan] lying on his back on a girder way up on a tall skyscraper. It was scary due to the height, and N’kisi said, ‘Don’t fall down.’ Then the movie cut to a commercial with a musical soundtrack, and as an image of a car appeared, N’kisi said, “There’s my car.” (N’kisi’s cage was at the other end of the room, and behind the TV. He could not see the screen and there were no sources of reflection.)

“I read the phrase ‘The blacker the berry the sweeter the juice’. N'kisi said ‘That’s called black’ at the same instant.
“I was in a room on a different floor, but I could hear him. I was looking at a deck of cards with individual pictures, and stopped at an image of a purple car. I was thinking it was an amazing shade of purple. Upstairs he said at that instant, ‘Oh wow, look at the pretty purple.’”

Of all the various incidents, perhaps the most remarkable occurred when N’kisi interrupted Aimée’s dreams. (He usually slept by her bed.) For example: “I was dreaming that I was working with the audio tape deck. N’kisi, sleeping by my head, said out loud, ‘You gotta push the button,’ as I was doing exactly that in my dream. His speech woke me up.” On another occasion, “I was on the couch napping, and I dreamed I was in the bathroom holding a brown dropper medicine bottle. N'kisi woke me up by saying, ‘See, that’s a bottle.’”

In April 2000, we met for the first time at Aimée’s home in Manhattan, New York. Together we set up a simple test that replicated a situation in which N’kisi had appeared to demonstrate telepathy spontaneously. We went to another room, where N’kisi could not see what we were doing, and Aimée looked through a pack of cards with various pictures on them. After looking at several other cards, she held up a picture that showed a girl and looked at it intently. As she did so, we heard N’kisi say with unmistakable clarity, “That’s a girl.” Since we were in a different room, and had not spoken about the image, it seemed very unlikely that clues had been transmitted through any of the normal sensory channels.

Clearly it was important to try to test this apparent telepathic communication in controlled experiments.

http://www.sheldrake.org/Articles&Papers/papers/animals/parrot_telepathy.html

Men, les heller rapporten selv. Det er interessant lesing

Forthcoming Research:
... Another series of telepathy experiments, using videotaped source imagery
... An ongoing video surveillance project to record N'kisi's creative use of language, as well as spontaneous telepathy. (We are currently seeking funding for the necessary equipment and related expenses. Donations of any size would be gratefully appreciated. If you would like to help support this groundbreaking research project, please email Dr. Sheldrake at this website.)

Så det er grunn til å sjekke Sheldrakes websted for oppdateringer fremover: http://www.sheldrake.org/Research/overview/

Håper dere poster, dersom noen finner en slik oppdatering



Sheldrakes eget syn på telepati, beskriver han slik:

Sitat:
Telepathy

by Rupert Sheldrake

My research on telepathy in animals (summarized in my book Dogs That Know When Their Owners are Coming Home and published in detail in a series of papers (listed here) led me to see telepathy as a normal, rather the paranormal. phenomenon, an aspect of communication between members of animal social groups. The same principles apply to human telepathy, and I have investigated little explored aspects of human telepathy, such as telepathy between mothers and babies, telephone telepathy (thinking of someone who soon afterwards calls) and email telepathy. I have designed several automated telepathy tests, some of which can be carried out through this website.

The website provides opportunities to contribute to the research on Telepathy with both Offline and Online Experiments

The experiments can be carried out by individuals, by groups, or in the classrooom. Simple instructions are provided and there are Notes for Teachers and Group Leaders
Se her, for alle linker: http://www.sheldrake.org/Research/telepathy/index.html


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